Learn How to Get a Private Investigator Licensing in any State
This article provides an explanation of how to get a private investigator license in any state in the United States of America. The article includes a general overview of the private investigation profession, a state-by-state listing of licensing authorities, state contact information, and website links. In addition, it includes helpful advice on the application process, how to join an association, where to find training, and much more.
What is a Licensed Private Investigator?
A licensed private investigator is sometimes referred to as a P.I., detective, gumshoe, sleuth, and sometimes even a spy. In general, the terms refer to a person who uncovers facts and information, finds missing persons, and gathers evidence, usually at the request of a citizen or a company for which they are employed.
Often, detectives work for attorneys and lawyers in both civil and criminal court cases. In addition, many professional investigators work for insurance companies to investigate suspicious or fraudulent insurance claims.
Most states require P.I.’s to be licensed and some may be permitted to carry firearms (guns) depending on local and state laws. Sometimes, detectives have prior military experience and many worked as police officers or law enforcement officials. Due to the nature of their work, PI’s keep detailed notes and records during each case and often testify in court regarding their observations on behalf of their clients.
In many cases, detectives work irregular hours, especially when conducting surveillance (e.g., sitting outside a subject’s house during early morning hours hoping to get a photograph or video of their activity).
The Private Investigator’s Licensing Handbook: How to Get a Private Investigator License in any State
Conveniently, all of the information in this section is included in my handy eBook, “The Private Investigator’s Licensing Handbook. The eBook, which is available at Amazon.com for just $3.69 (paperback is available for $14.95), explains how to get an investigator license in any state. In addition, it includes an overview of the profession, general information on training and education, and advice for starting your business.
Also, the book includes a state-by-state listing of private investigation industry associations. Plus, it has a helpful section on how to get your business up and running.
In many cases, spouses hire professional investigators to obtain proof of adultery or other illegal conduct to establish grounds for a divorce. In fact, collecting evidence of adultery or other bad behavior by cheating spouses and partners is one of the most common and profitable services offered.
Also, PI’s provide process serving, which is the delivery of subpoenas and other legal documents to people involved in a legal case. Many detective agencies specialize in a particular field of expertise. For example, some agencies deal only in skip tracing related to finding missing persons or tracking down debtors.
While others may specialize in technical surveillance countermeasures, which involve locating and dealing with unwanted forms of electronic surveillance (for example, an electronically bugged boardroom for industrial espionage purposes).
Increasingly, detectives prefer to be known as “professional investigators”. In part, this is a response to the sometimes negative image that is attributed to the P.I. profession and an effort to establish the industry to be a proper and respectable trade.
The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics publishes an article in the Occupational Outlook Handbook for Private Detectives and Investigators. The article describes the nature of the work, working conditions, qualifications, employment, training and advancement, earnings, job outlook, and related occupations. If you want to become a professional detective, this is a great place to begin.
Services, Training, and Reference Material
Learn more about the profession:
- View a list of potential services provided
- Training courses for increasing your knowledge and skills
- List of Private Investigation Training books
- View Salary and Wage information
- List of Jobs and Careers
How to Get a Private Investigator License in any State
Following is a state-by-state listing of contact information for obtaining a license and links to verify licensing credentials. Some states don’t require a license specifically for private investigations. However, they may require business credentials, permits, or have other legal requirements such as training or professional certifications. In addition, states may require individuals to pass an exam or complete a series of educational courses. So, if you conduct business in more than one state, you should consider getting licensed in each state.
- A private investigator’s license is not required in the State of Alaska. Yet, some individual cities in the state of Alaska such as Fairbanks and Anchorage may have their own licensing requirements. Also, a business license and other requirements may be necessary. Check the individual city websites for more information on licensing, insurance, and fees.
- Connecticut – Licensing is handled by the Connecticut Department of Emergency Services and Public Protection.
- Delaware – All applications are processed by the Delaware State Police.
- Georgia – The process is managed by the Georgia Board of Private Detectives and Security Agencies.
- Hawaii – Department of Commerce and Consumer Affairs, Professional & Vocational Licensing Division, Board of Private Detectives and Guards.
Licensing in the state of Iowa is handled by the Iowa Department of Public Safety, Administrative Services Division. The department contact information is as follows:
Bail Enforcement / Private Investigative / Security Licensing Program Services Bureau
Administrative Services Division
Iowa Department of Public Safety
Department of Public Safety Building
215 East 7th Street, 4th Floor
Des Moines, IA 50319-0045
Other special licensing requirements such as education requirements, experience requirements, examinations, and insurance may be required. Visit the state licensing website for more detailed and up-to-date information.
- See the Kansas page.
- Private investigator licensing in the state of Maine is handled by the Maine State Police Licensing Division. Also, the Maine State Police Licensing Division is responsible for licensing professional investigators, investigative assistants, and Professional security companies. Requirements may change, so please visit the website for the most up-to-date instructions related to the licensing application process. In addition, special licensing requirements such as education requirements, experience requirements, examinations, and insurance may be required. Check the state licensing website for specific details.
- Licensing in Minnesota is handled by the Department of Public Safety Private Detective & Protective Agent Services Board. The Board ensures that investigative and security service practitioners meet statutory qualifications and training for licensure and maintain standards set forth in Minnesota Statutes and Administrative Rules. Also, other special requirements such as education requirements, experience requirements, examinations, and insurance may be required. Check the state website for more information.
- Licensing in the state of Montana is handled by the Montana Board of Private Security. The Board provides information pertaining to the licensing and regulation of professional investigators, trainees, process servers, firearm instructors, and other professions in the security industry in Montana.
- Licensing in the state of New Hampshire is handled by the New Hampshire Department of Safety – Division of State Police – Division of Permits and Licenses. Visit the website for application forms, a list of requirements for obtaining your credentials, and the laws that govern private investigators in the state. Additionally, other special licensing requirements such as education requirements, experience requirements, examinations, and insurance may be required.
- Private Investigator licensing in the state of North Dakota is handled by the North Dakota Private Investigative & Security Board. The North Dakota Board licenses and regulates the Investigation and Security industries. The board establishes the qualifications and procedures for classifying, qualifying, licensing, bonding, and regulating persons providing professional investigative and security services, including armed security personnel.
- Pennsylvania – Private Investigator Licensing in the state of Pennsylvania is handled by the Pennsylvania Courts of Common Pleas. To apply for a license, contact the clerk of the court in the county you wish to be licensed. Visit the Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania website for contact information. Contact the Clerk of Courts for your county to find out how to submit an application.
Private Investigator licensing in Vermont is handled by the Secretary of State Board of Private Investigative and Security Services. The board ensures that applicants are qualified to obtain an investigator license in Vermont, sets professional standards for the professional investigative profession.
The District of Columbia Security Officers Management Branch (SOMB), Metropolitan Police Department handles private investigator licensing. Visit the D.C. SOMB website for more specific information on obtaining your official investigator license.
Any person or group of people who perform investigative or security guard functions in West Virginia must be professionally licensed.
Licensing requirements are somewhat different for each state and those requirements may change as new legislation passes. Be sure to check the state’s licensing website for the most up to date information.
Some states have reciprocity agreements that allow P.I.’s to do investigative work in both states. Currently, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Tennessee,
Start Your Business
After you get a private investigator license, start thinking about the next steps. For more information, read our article, How to Get Your Investigation Business Up and Running for helpful tips. Furthermore, the article covers important steps such as Business Licensing, insurance considerations, purchasing equipment and supplies, how to create an online presence and much more.
Questions or Comments
If you have any questions about how to get a private investigator’s license, please leave a comment below.