What is Crime Scene Investigation?
Crime scene investigations involve employing forensic science tools, procedures, and processes to investigate a crime scene and the collection of forensic evidence.
Forensic Science in Crime Scene Investigations
Forensic science, more commonly known as forensics, is the application of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. Forensics may be used to answer questions in relation to a crime or a civil action.
Forensics encompasses the accepted scholarly or scientific methodology and norms under which the facts regarding an event, or an artifact, or some other physical item (such as a corpse) is ascertained as being the case.
The concept, therefore, is related to the notion of authentication, whereby an interest outside of a legal form exists in determining whether an object is what it purports to be, or is alleged as being.
The word forensic comes from the Latin adjective forensis, meaning “of or before the forum.” In Roman times, a criminal charge meant presenting the case before a group of public individuals in the forum. Both the person accused of the crime and the accuser would give speeches based on their side of the story.
The individual with the best argument and delivery would determine the outcome of the case. This origin is the source of the two modern usages of the word as a form of legal evidence and as a category of public presentation.
Private investigators with specialized training and education may engage in various forms of forensic investigations such as Forensic accounting, forensic computer software examination and analysis, document examinations, environmental analysis, and crime scene investigations.
Ballistics and Firearms
Ballistics is the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and hurling projectiles so as to achieve the desired performance. A ballistic body is a body that is free to move, behave, and be modified in appearance, contour, or texture by ambient conditions, substances, or forces.
Following are websites that provide information on firearm identification and ballistic forensics:
- Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners – The Association of Firearm and Toolmark Examiners is a professional organization for those in the forensic ballistics field. This site contains news, information, and links.
- Firearms Identification and Forensic Ballistics – FirearmID.com contains information on firearms identification, including identification of bullets, cartridge cases, and other ammunition components as having been fired from a specific firearm. It also describes the responsibilities of an expert witness.
Crime Scene Investigation Resources
- Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction– Association that encourages the exchange of information and procedures useful in the reconstruction of criminal locations.
- Crime & Clues – Articles on the art and science of criminal investigation, covering numerous types of evidence including fingerprint, physical, testimonial, and behavioral.
- Crime Scene Clean-up – Group that is dedicated to helping to compassionately, safely, and discreetly restore a scene to a safe state.
- Arrowhead Forensics – Provides a wide selection of tools, equipment, and supplies.
- International Crime Scene Investigators Association – Assists law enforcement personnel who are involved in this line of duty.
- International Homicide Investigators Association – Assists and supports law enforcement agencies and death investigation professionals by providing leadership, training, resources, and expertise that will enhance their ability to solve cases.
American Society of Questioned Document Examiners – Fosters education, sponsor scientific research, establish standards, exchange experience. Also, the ASQDE provides instruction in the field of questioned document examination and promotes justice in matters that involve questions about documents.
DNA Lab Testing
American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors – The ASCLD organization is dedicated to providing excellence in science analysis through leadership in the management of forensic science
Also, see our article on DNA Lab Testing.
Evidence Collection, Storage and Processing
Evidence, in its broadest sense, includes everything that is used to determine or demonstrate the truth of an assertion. Giving or procuring evidence is the process of using those things that are either (a) presumed to be true, or (b) were themselves proven via evidence, to demonstrate an assertion’s truth. Evidence is how the burden of proof is fulfilled.
Evidence Collection techniques vary by the evidence type and location. The main purpose of evidence collection is to retrieve the evidence “as-is” and without damaging the evidence. It must be handled correctly and packaged to minimize deterioration and contamination.
Crime Scene Procedures – A brief explanation on collecting evidence, methods of collection, and chain of custody procedures.
CrimeSceneInvestigator.net – This website has an extensive collection of resources for crime scene investigators, especially related to the collecting, packaging, handling, and submission of evidence. Following is a sample of what you’ll find:
Evidence Packaging Procedures – A comprehensive list of procedures published by the Illinois State Police Division of Forensic Services. Explains how materials are to be placed in containers sealed with the correct tape and marked with the officer’s initials and the date. This detailed guide covers everything from drugs to articles of clothing. A great example of a quality guide.
Guidelines for Evidence Submission – The guidelines from the Department of Public Safety, Division of Scientific Services in Connecticut. The guide explains how various items should be packaged, marked and labeled. Also, it explains how to complete the necessary forms. Includes guidance on objects gathered from fire scenes, sexual assault cases, blood samples, bombs and explosives, gunshot residue, paint samples, hairs and fibers, firearms, latent prints and more.
Fingerprinting – An overview of the fingerprinting process and a collection of links and information on fingerprinting.
Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry
- American Academy of Forensic Psychology – The education and training arm of the American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP), which is responsible for the diplomating process in forensic psychology.
- American Psychological Association – A scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide.
- American Psychiatric Association – A medical specialty society recognized world-wide. The U.S. and international member physicians work together to ensure humane care and effective treatment for all persons with mental disorders, including mental retardation and substance-related disorders.
- American Academy of Forensic Science – A professional society devoted to the application of forensic science and law
- American Board of Forensic Odontology – Comprised of individuals who are national and world-renowned experts.
- American Board of Forensic Toxicologists – Works to establish, enhance, and revise as necessary, standards of qualification for forensic toxicology, and to certify as qualified specialists those voluntary applicants who comply with the requirements of the Board.
- National Forensic Science Technical Center– A not-for-profit corporation funded by a Cooperative Agreement with the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and provides programs that build individual competency and quality systems for the forensic science community in the United States.
Crime Scene Investigation Books
Crime scene investigations are usually handled by qualified law enforcement specialists. However, private investigators may be hired by private parties to conduct their own investigation into the facts of the case. Private eyes who are skilled at investigating crime scenes can sometimes find information or clues that the police don’t notice.
A private investigator’s persistence and eye for detail may lead to solving the case. Having a library of crime scene investigation books is helpful for any investigator that wants to develop the skill of investigating criminal locations. These books will help a P.I learn how to:
- How to secure a crime scene and conduct an in-depth and thorough investigation
- Collect Forensic evidence and photographs
- How to collect evidence such as fingerprints, hair, blood, stages of body decay, and other fibers
- How to identify, trace and analyze evidence from firearms and explosives
- How to secure, store, and analyze data gathered to help solve the mystery
- How to document and report evidence and information found during a forensic analysis
- How to pursue a career in the field, where to look for jobs and how to get a CSI job
This book covers a series of true stories about how criminal behavior is investigated, solved and the criminals were captured with the help of information, data, and forensic evidence gathered from the scene of the violation. The reference book is based on a series of interviews with police and forensic specialists. The guide also discusses potential jobs and career paths related to criminal science.
This is a great manual for private investigators, technicians, and forensic scientists to learn how to apply both science and technology to collect evidence. This helpful guide reviews the concepts, techniques, and procedures involved with a criminal investigation. Learn about the latest in forensic DNA collection and lab testing, digital evidence, photography, and evidence processing.
This textbook takes the reader from the point of first arriving on the scene to presenting physical evidence and data in the courtroom. You’ll find information that is not normally covered in other CSI books, including photographs, illustrations, and real-life examples. Also helpful is an extensive glossary of key terms and discussion questions.
Practical Crime Scene Processing and Investigation (PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF CRIMINAL & Forensic INVESTIGATIONS)
This forensic book focuses on the practical aspects and processing of the evidence. This guide explains what an actual forensic scene investigator does in their day-to-day work, including the procedures and steps that are typically involved in the process. Also included is an overview of the theory involved and the ethical side of things. Includes discussions, detailed data, and real-life examples to help private detectives learn how to apply the tools to their investigations.
Hire a Private Investigator
Many private investigators specialize in crime scene investigations, and many have former experience as a police officer. To hire a private investigator that specializes in this type of work, please visit our Private Investigator Directory.
If you have any questions about crime scene investigations, please leave a message below.