NORAD North American Aerospace Defense Command


What is NORAD?

The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) is a joint military organization of the United States and Canadian governments that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for the two countries. NORAD is responsible for detecting, validating, and warning of any attacks against North America. This includes attacks from aircraft, missiles, or space vehicles. The organization is also responsible for maritime warnings.

Where is NORAD Located?

NORAD’s main facility is in the Cheyenne Mountain Directorate of the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station (AFS). The facility is located in Colorado. As a result, NORAD is sometimes known as Cheyenne Mountain. NORAD’s operations center is located inside the granite mountain. The Army Corps of Engineers designed and built the structure.

The United States Air Force administers NORAD’s headquarters in Colorado under the command of the 721st Mission Support Group. The 721st Mission Support Group is part of the 21st Space Wing, headquartered at Peterson Air Force Base. NORAD’s forces make up the Alaskan Region’s Eleventh Air Force, Canadian, and Continental Region.

The Canada East and Canada West Sector Air Operations Control Centers are in the underground complex at Canadian Forces Base North Bay in Ontario, Canada.

The Origins and History of NORAD

NORAD was born in the Cold War era when the United States and Canada recognized the need for a unified defense against potential aerial threats. The Soviet Union’s technological advancements in aviation and missile systems spurred the creation of a joint command structure to detect, monitor, and respond to potential threats to the continent.

On May 12, 1958, the United States and Canada signed the NORAD Agreement, formally establishing the organization. NORAD’s primary mission was to provide early warning and defense against strategic nuclear bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles. Over the years, the command expanded its responsibilities to include surveillance of aerospace activities, control, and maritime warning.

NORAD’s Role in Modern Times

In contemporary times, NORAD’s mission extends beyond nuclear deterrence, including various aerospace and maritime security challenges. Its core functions include:

  1. Aerospace Warning: NORAD continuously monitors the airspace and maritime approaches to North America using radar systems, satellites, and other sensors. It tracks aircraft, missiles, and objects in space to provide early warning of potential threats, whether unauthorized aircraft, ballistic missile launches, or space debris.
  2. Aerospace Control: NORAD exercises sovereignty over North American airspace, coordinating with civilian authorities to ensure safe and efficient air traffic management. It enforces airspace restrictions, conducts air patrols, and intercepts suspicious or non-compliant aircraft when necessary.
  3. Maritime Warning: NORAD also watches the maritime approaches to North America, detecting and tracking vessels that may threaten national security. This includes monitoring maritime traffic, identifying potential smuggling activities, and responding to maritime incidents that require military assistance.
  4. Incident Management: In the event of a security threat or emergency, NORAD serves as a central command and control hub, coordinating the response efforts of both the United States and Canada. This includes working closely with federal, state/provincial, and local agencies to provide an effective and coordinated response to any potential threat or crisis.

The Significance of NORAD

NORAD’s significance lies in its unique binational nature and its ability to seamlessly integrate the military forces of the United States and Canada. The close cooperation between the two countries is a testament to their shared commitment to defense and protecting North American citizens. NORAD’s presence serves as a deterrent to potential adversaries and assures the public that their airspace and maritime domains are protected.

Furthermore, NORAD’s comprehensive surveillance capabilities and early warning systems contribute not only to defense but also to the safety and efficiency of civil aviation. The organization’s collaborative approach to air traffic management helps prevent accidents and ensures the smooth flow of commercial and private air traffic.

NORAD remains a vital component of the defense architecture of North America, safeguarding the skies and maritime approaches from potential threats. Through its extensive network of sensors, advanced technologies, and joint operations, NORAD has proven its ability to adapt to evolving security challenges and maintain its critical role in ensuring the safety and security of the continent. As the nature of threats continues to evolve, NORAD’s ongoing commitment.

Official Website

NORAD Official Website – The website provides a wealth of information, including news headlines, historical information, Department of Homeland Security Warning Levels, Base information, photographs, and much more.

Tracking Santa Claus

NORAD tracks Santa Claus each Christmas Eve using radar, satellites, and high-tech systems. This tradition began in 1955 when a misprinted phone number led to NORAD receiving children’s inquiries about Santa’s journey. Every Christmas Eve, over 1500 volunteers staff call centers to answer phone calls and emails from children worldwide. In addition, children can track Santa’s location via the NORAD Tracks Santa website, Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.

United States Northern Command

The U.S. Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) was established on October 1, 2002, to provide command and control of Department of Defense (DOD) homeland defense efforts. Also, the Northern Command coordinates defense support of civil authorities.

USNORTHCOM is responsible for protecting America’s homeland, the United States citizens, national power, and freedom of action. USNORTHCOM anticipates and conducts Homeland Defense and Civil Support operations within the assigned area of responsibility to defend, protect, and secure the United States and its interests. For more information, visit their website.

USNORTHCOM’s area includes air, land, and sea approaches and includes the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding water out to approximately 500 nautical miles. It also includes the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida, and portions of the Caribbean region, including The Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The commander of USNORTHCOM is responsible for theater security cooperation with Canada, Mexico, and The Bahamas.

If you’re interested in learning more, check out this book at Amazon. The 40-page paperback book covers the history of the North American Aerospace Defense Command. It is available for just $14.95.

Questions and Comments

If you have any questions about NORAD, please post them below. Also, learn about other military and government agencies.

Michael Kissiah is the owner of Brandy Lane Publishing, LLC, which owns and operates a small portfolio of websites, including Michael created more than 20 years ago after working as a private investigator in the state of Florida. Since that time, he has become an expert at how to find information online and has written over 1000 articles on topics related to the investigation industry. In addition, he is the author of the "Private Investigator Licensing Handbook", available at


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