What is the National Crime Information Center?
The National Crime Information Center (NCIC) is the United States’ central database that is used for tracking crime-related information. Since 1967, the National Crime Information Center has been maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Criminal Justice Information Services Division, and is interlinked with similar systems that are maintained by each state in the country. The original purpose of the system was to create a centralized information system to facilitate the flow of information and crime data between the numerous law enforcement branches in the federal government. It is widely considered to be the lifeline of police and law enforcement that is used by every criminal justice agency in the country around the clock.
National Crime Information Center (NCIC) Records
The NCIC makes available a variety of records to be used for law enforcement and security purposes. These criminal records are made up of a variety of forms of personal and property records.
What Types of Data Does it Contain?
The NCIC stores data and statistics on crime that is received from federal, state and local law enforcement agencies, as well lesser known law enforcement agencies such as tribal law police forces, railroad police, and non-law enforcement agencies, such as state and federal motor vehicle registration and licensing authorities.
The NCIC database currently consists of 21 files. There are seven property files containing records of stolen articles, boats, guns, license plates, parts, securities, and vehicles. There are 14 persons files, including: Supervised Release; National Sex Offender Registry; Foreign Fugitive; Immigration Violator; Missing Person; Protection Order; Unidentified Person; Protective Interest; Gang; Known or Appropriately Suspected Terrorist; Wanted Person; Identity Theft; Violent Person; and National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Denied Transaction. The system also contains images that can be associated with NCIC records to help agencies identify people and property items. The Interstate Identification Index, which contains automated criminal history record information, is accessible through the same network. The NCIC database includes 21 files (seven property files and 14 person files).
- Article File: Records on stolen articles and lost public safety, homeland security, and critical infrastructure identification.
- Gun File: Records on stolen, lost, and recovered weapons and weapons used in the commission of crimes that are designated to expel a projectile by air, carbon dioxide, or explosive action.
- Boat File: Records on stolen boats and marine vehicles.
- Securities File: Records on serially numbered stolen, embezzled, used for ransom, or counterfeit securities.
- Vehicle File: Records on stolen vehicles, vehicles involved in the commission of crimes, or vehicles that may be seized based on federally issued court order.
- Vehicle and Boat Parts File: Records on serially numbered stolen vehicle or boat parts.
- License Plate File: Records on stolen vehicle license plates
- Missing Persons File: Records on individuals, including children, who have been reported missing to law enforcement and there is a reasonable concern for their safety. Includes abductions and kidnappings.
- Foreign Fugitive File: Records on persons wanted by another country for a crime that would be a felony if it were committed in the United States.
- Identity Theft File: Content containing descriptive and other information that law enforcement personnel can use to determine if an individual is a victim of identity theft of if the individual might be using a false identity.
- Immigration Violator File: Data and information on criminal aliens whom immigration authorities have deported and aliens with outstanding administrative warrants of removal.
- Protection Order File: Records on individuals against whom protection orders have been issued.
- Supervised Release File: Records on individuals on probation, parole, or supervised release or released on their own recognizance or during pre-trial sentencing.
- Unidentified Persons File: Records on unidentified deceased persons, living persons who are unable to verify their identities, unidentified victims of catastrophes, and recovered body parts. The file cross-references unidentified bodies against records in the Missing Persons File.
- Protective Interest: Details on individuals who might pose a threat to the physical safety of protectees or their immediate families. Expands on the the U.S. Secret Service Protective File, originally created in 1983.
- Gang File: Records on violent gangs, crimes and their members.
- Known or Appropriately Suspected Terrorist File: Information on known or appropriately suspected terrorists in accordance with HSPD-6.
- Wanted Persons File: Records on individuals (including juveniles who will be tried as adults) for whom a federal warrant or a felony or misdemeanor warrant is outstanding.
- National Sex Offender Registry File: Records on individuals who are required to register in a jurisdiction’s sex offender registry.
- National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) Denied Transaction File: Records on individuals who have been determined to be “prohibited persons” according to the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act and were denied as a result of a NICS background check. (As of August 2012, records include last six months of denied transactions; in the future, records will include all denials.)
- Violent Person File: Once fully populated with data from our users, this file will contain records of persons with a violent criminal history and persons who have previously threatened law enforcement.
How is the System Used by Law Enforcement Agencies?
Criminal justice agencies enter records into NCIC that are accessible to law enforcement agencies nationwide. For example, a law enforcement officer can search NCIC during a traffic stop to determine if the vehicle in question is stolen or if the driver is wanted by law enforcement. The system responds instantly. However, a positive response from NCIC is not probable cause for an officer to take action. NCIC policy requires the inquiring agency to make contact with the entering agency to verify the information is accurate and up-to-date. Once the record is confirmed, the inquiring agency may take action to arrest a fugitive, return a missing person, charge a subject with violation of a protection order, or recover stolen property.
For more information, visit the FBI website at https://www.fbi.gov/services/cjis/ncic.