# Morse Code Signals for Radio Communications

### What is Morse Code?

Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses, commonly known as “dots and dashes”, for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. It is named for Samuel F. B. Morse, who invented the telegraph.

### Morse Code Letters and Numbers

The code uses a series of dots and dashes that relate back to a legend of letters and numbers. A dash is three times longer in duration than a dash. When Morse is used in audio communication, the listen makes note of the sequence of dashes and dots and then decodes the message.

In the case of visual usage, such as with flashes of light, the observer records the duration of the flashes and then decodes the message.

### Morse Code Letters

The following table shows the Morse code for each letter of the alphabet.

• A . _
• B _ . . .
• C _ . _ .
• D _ . .
• E .
• F . . _ .
• G _ _ .
• H . . . .
• I . .
• J . _ _ _
• K _ . _
• L . _ . .
• M _ _
• N _ .
• O _ _ _
• P . _ _ .
• Q _ _ . _
• R . _ .
• S . . .
• T _
• U . . _
• V . . . _
• W . _ _
• X _ . . _
• Y _ . _ _
• Z _ _ . .

### Morse Code Numbers

Following is a list of codes for numbers:

• 0 _ _ _ _ _
• 1 . _ _ _ _
• 2 . . _ _ _
• 3 . . . _ _
• 4 . . . . _
• 5 . . . . .
• 6 _ . . . .
• 7 _ _ . . .
• 8 _ _ _ . .
• 9 _ _ _ _ .

Larger numbers are created by stringing individual numbers together.

Punctuation

Following are the codes used for various punctuation:

• Comma , _ _ . . _ _
• Full stop .
• (period) . _ . _ . _
• Question mark ? . . _ _ . .
• Semicolon ; _ . _ . _ .
• Colon : or division sign _ _ _ . . .
• Slash / (fraction bar) _ . . _ .
• Dash – _ . . . . _
• Apostrophe ‘ . _ _ _ _ .
Inverted comms ” . _ . . _ .
• Underline . . _ _ . _
Left bracket or parenthesis ( _ . _ _ .
• Right bracket or parenthesis ) _ . _ _ . _
Double hyphen =
equals sign _ . . . _
• Cross +
• addition sign . _ . _ .
• Multiplication sign X _ . . _
• Commercial at @ . _ _ . _ .

Characters with Accents

• Á . _ _ . _
• Ä . _ . _
• É . . _ . .
• Ñ _ _ . _ _
• Ö _ _ _ .
• Ü . . _ _

Procedural characters

Start of work (CT) _ . _ . _ .

End of work (VA) . . . _ . _

Invitation to transit (K) _ . _

Invitation for a particular station to transmit (KN) _ . _ _ .
End of message (AR) . _ . _ .

Wait . _ . . .
If there was an error, this code is sent . . . . . . . .

If the message is understood, the following code is sent: . . . _ .